Earlier this autumn, members of the Winterskloof Conservancy gathered on a ‘freshly washed’ Sunday morning to enjoy a Water Workshop conducted by Penny Rees.
Judy Bell writes:
Penny Rees began the workshop at Cowan House with a discussion about the need to look after our catchments in KwaZulu-Natal.
Our Valley is the watershed for the Dorpspruit, which feeds into the Msunduzi and then into the uMngeni River. As you can see in the diagram below, the sources of about 12 streams are located right here in our Valley (shaded area) and our properties. Hence the importance of us all becoming river custodians.
Conservancies and communities along the uMgeni River and various catchments are forming partnerships with DUCT to assist in monitoring and protecting the rivers and their catchments in an effort to release more water of good quality into the system. These workshops held in the Midlands Conservancies are educating communities to monitor rivers in a practical and easy way, so that we can all take action to improve the situation. A grant from the N3 Toll Concession (N3TC) to the Midlands Conservancies Forum has enabled Penny Rees to run these workshops for the 14 Conservancies that make up the Forum.
The more people who learn to do these easy river health assessments, the more monitoring results will be available for the streams flowing through our properties and neighbourhood. If we continue to record the results, we will be able to trend the quality with time.
Penny explained some fast-flowing facts about our water:
- The uMngeni River arises in the uMngeni Vlei (Nottingham Road area) and flows to Midmar Dam (our drinking water supply) through intensively farmed areas – mainly dairy and pigs, with pollution from fertilizers, effluents and manure slurries, discharging into it. It is also affected by raw sewage from blocked sewers, especially from the Mthinzima Stream, a tributary arising from the hills above Mpophomeni and flowing into Midmar. Below the Dam, the river becomes heavily polluted in places as it flows through Howick, affected by contaminated stormwater, litter, raw and treated sewage. The effluent from the Howick Wastewater Treatment Works flows over the edge of the krantz before the Howick Falls, into the Umgeni Nature Reserve.
- The river is infested in many places with invasive alien plants such as bramble, bugweed, black wattle (Acacia mearnisii). This is an invasive native to Australia, which grows unchecked in thickets, with no undergrowth to protect the bare soil, which then erodes easily. The river previously meandered through grasslands, but with shading by the invasive wattle trees has changed the temperature and pH of the water, which encourages the growth of unhealthy micro-organisms and other plant life, affecting the river’s health.
- Soil erosion, litter from illegal dumping and storm water drains, treated and untreated effluent all contribute to the deterioration in the health of the river as it makes its way to the sea.
- Over one thousand million litres of water are abstracted from the uMngeni daily for domestic, agricultural and industrial consumption. This is not sufficient to meet the increasing demand, which has led to the development of the Spring Grove Dam and Mearns Weir projects in the Midlands, transferring water from the Mooi to the uMngeni River.
- Water is pumped at great cost from one catchment to another (e.g. Thukela-Vaal) to augment supplies.
- Only appropriate developments should be allowed near sensitive wetlands and grasslands, which are often viewed as ‘idle land’, when in fact they are performing a life-saving role as water factories and cleaning agents.
- eThekwini Municipality is currently spending around R1 million each month to clean uMngeni Water to drinking water quality standards and is now working with Msunduzi and uMgungungdlovu Municipalities to invest in the ecological or natural infrastructure that will help increase flows of good quality water into our dams – the wetlands, grasslands, forests in the upper catchments. This is why the Midlands, with its ‘water factories’, is so important.
- The River Walks that DUCT undertakes has shown that rivers can ‘heal’ themselves if there is sufficient space between the damaged areas (pollution and invasive alien plant infestations). In the Cumberland Nature Reserve, this was shown to be a 10 km stretch without pollution, development or alien plant infestations.
- Monitoring and knowledge of the health of rivers has become a priority, which is why the miniSASS river health assessments (Stream Assessment Scoring System) were introduced, to help citizens join the programme and learn about the water quality in their communities.
Water Quality Monitoring – No High-Tech Equipment needed!
The beauty of this testing system lies in its simplicity. Anyone can learn how to collect a miniSASS sample on a river or stream, and determine the water quality and health of water resource. It involves catching and identifying the number and types of macro-invertebrates (small animals) or “nunus” which live in the water. These are barometers (indicators) of the general river health and water quality. Equipment consists of enthusiastic samplers of all ages using various plastic containers (yoghurt or margarine tubs) with mosquito gauze on top, children’s beach fishing nets and pot plant drip trays for the catch, as well as the miniSASS score card and invertebrate identification booklet.
The group moved down to the Doreen Clark Nature Reserve, just below St Michael’s Road to do a miniSASS on the stream flowing through the reserve. This stream flows throughout the year through the mist-belt forest, but picks up the run-off from the road and houses upstream, so is not expected to be in “pristine” state. Under Penny’s guidance, the group quickly collected specimens from the stream amidst lots of ‘oohs, ahhs’ and muddied feet.
The “catch” was compared with the photographs and placed into groups. The scores allocated to the different types of organisms was tallied and then divided by the number of groups to which they belonged. Some organisms carried a higher score, as they are only present in “clean” water. The stream scored 6.8 which is a rating of fair to good on the miniSASS scale (see Scoring Box below).
We hope to involve the schools in the area to develop custodianship of the rivers and streams, to help with regular monitoring of the Valley’s streams’ health and water quality. The website sass.orasecom.org has further details on testing, identification of the nunus, scoring and registration of the stream as well as a map, geographic coordinates and locations of the river or stream and how to submit test results which should be carried out with a minimum of 6 week intervals to allow the sample site to recover.
Penny said she thoroughly enjoyed herself and that it was great to see how the younger members got so involved!
SASS – Ecological Category (Condition) Interpretation Score
- Unmodified (NATURAL) >7.9
- Largely natural / few modifications (GOOD) 6.8 – 7.9
- Moderately modified (FAIR condition) 6.1- 6.8
- Largely modified (POOR condition) 5.1 – 6.1
- Seriously / critically modified (VERY POOR condition) <5.1
Thanks to all those who joined us for the Workshop, to Cowan House for hosting us, Penny Rees for enlightening us, the Midlands Conservancies Forum and N3TC for funding the Workshop and for those who joined us. Winterskloof will have another water workshop later in the year in Spring, so watch out for this. Balgowan Conservancy will host one on 27 April in the Mpofana River.